Category Archives: Featured

Wahabism in Islam 1

Wahhabism is dangerous for other cultures

Though Islam has originated from Semitic, if you will go through the history, where it was a social reform movement in the early stage, it turned into a purely political movement after the demise of its founder Muhammad Sahab, where Muslim groups were fighting amongst themselves for power. All the battles that Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid or the Ottoman Empire fought and conquered princely states were aimed to achieve power and not to do the religious propaganda… But in spite of this, there were a large number of conversions and large populations got converted into Islamic structure.

But the point to understand here is that the definition of Islam that was created in the light of the Hadiths and Quran was appropriate for a certain geographical area but it was not suitable to integrate all the cultures outside of Arabia those embraced Islam but also maintained their own existences. You can understand this better by keeping your own country as a model rather than understanding this through any other region.

People in India were largely Hindus but were divided into castes/sub-castes and many of their customs were there since ages. They did adopt Islam, but still did not abandon those customs, traditions and brought them into Islam itself. You can find many traditions in Jat, Rajput Muslim societies that have no connection with Islam. Those who believed in the tradition of the gurus started following pirs… Those who had the habit of bowing before the idols started worshipping mausoleums.

This happened in almost all countries with their own cultural identity. They incorporated their cultural identity, their customs, traditions into Islam and it got a distinct identity as Sufi Islam. It was a series connecting human with human, which had a rapid impact from Turkey, Arab, Iran to India… The rituals associated with it were due to the integration of other cultures where people linked their ancestral traditions with Islam.

Whatever bloodshed by the Muslims in that period was done, was a result of power hunger but it had got nothing to do with that Islamic fundamentalism, perverted form of which we now see as extremism or terrorism. There was also an era when the Arabic language was dominated, Baghdad was called the centre of knowledge. The supremacy of the Arabic world over the knowledge was similar to that of the West today.

The tenth-century vizier Ibn Abbad had more than a lac books when there were not so many books in all libraries across Europe. Baghdad alone had thirty major research centres of scientific knowledge. In addition to Baghdad, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Damascus, Mosul, Tous and Nishapur were major centres of learning in the Arabic world and Islam was established in a different form.

In India, at that time the Quran was confined to the Arabic language, which people used to read from the perspective of sawab, and the Hadiths had absolutely nothing to do much with ordinary people. Few Hadiths with good messages were sometimes used to be recited in mosques on Fridays or on Shab e Qadr… or there used to be events like ijtema and Milad among women where they used to recite some good Hadiths.

That is, the issues like shirk, biddat, etc. were on a very small and almost negligible scale and the majority of the Muslim population was living unaware of these in their own way. Integrating different cultures and traditions, Muslims had many faiths like Shia, Hanafi, Maliki, Saifi, Jafari, Baqaria, Basharia, Khalafia, Hanbali, Zahiri, Ashri, Muntazili, Murzia, Matroodi, Ismaili, Bohra, Ahmadiyya, etc. keeping their own identity while Deobandis, who claim purity, were also accepting this cultural diversity despite living with the identity of that ideology.

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Concept of pure Arabic Islam

This pure Arabic Islam was conceptualized by Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792) who started destroying the beautiful and progressive traditions that were developing within Islam. All those rituals, customs, traditions first began to be recognized as shirk and biddat in the light of the Quran and Hadiths and Islam was given such a narrow form that there should be no scope for any kind of freedom, openness and communion.

Abd al Wahhab, taking the initiative to eliminate whatever is outside the purview of the Quran and Hadith, declared the killing of every mushrik and plundering their property as halal and for this, he prepared an army of 600 people and deployed them in the name of jihad everywhere. He started killing people of all types of Islamic beliefs. He only kept propagating his ideology and whosoever refused to accept him was killed and their property was robbed. He personally attacked the tomb of the famous Islamic thinker Zaid ibn al Khattab and demolished it himself.

He started attacking the Mazars and targeted Sufism. During this time he entered into an agreement with Muhammad bin Saud. Muhammad bin Saud was the ruler of Diriyyah and possessed both wealth and army. Together, both of them started using swords as well as modern weapons. The agreement of these two made it easy to reach out to remote areas to impose their ideology and destroy other faiths.

The burning of all books related to other faiths became a passion for Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. Along with this, he issued another disgusting order to demolish all the Sufi Mazars, mausoleums or tombs and make urinals there. Saudi Arabia, a nation based on the Wahhabi faith apparently, continued the tradition of Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab and for that reason the burial cemetery with the nabi and his family there was also destroyed. Al-Mukarramah, a part of the Kaaba was also demolished for the same reason…

The distorted form of jihad that we see today is originated of this concept. And it was not only started forcibly but also started as a mass awareness campaign where those Quranic verses and the Hadiths were widely disseminated with meanings that could be used to separate all those things as shirk and biddat from Islam, that were not related to the original form of Islam. Gradually, this ideology began to engulf all Muslim countries that were leading happy lives with their mixed cultures.

You can see the changes under Erdogan’s leadership in Turkey. You can understand the changing form of Bangladesh living with a Hindu-Bengali culture from the writings of Taslima Nasrin. In Pakistan, Jinnah and Iqbal, who used to be considered as Pakistan’s builders and respectable figures, are being targeted by the new generation of Pakistanis because of things like Ahmadiyya, Khoja, pork, wine in the same way in which Gandhi is to new nationalists in India. To see this change in India look around, look at the Jat, Rajput Muslim societies of Western UP, Haryana, Rajasthan.

Wahhabism has been playing with the history of Islam, beliefs, mutual harmony and co-existence of identities. Hitler adopted the idea of racial purity as one identity, one type of people, one kind of thinking, one book from Wahhabism itself. Expelling firqas other than Wahhabism from Islam and their slaughter was justified. People of other religions were even declared wajib-ul-qatl (mandatory to kill) and the plunder of their property and the conversion of their women was justified. Pakistan and Bangladesh became their favourite playgrounds.

How this idea of ​​oneness is fatal to an inclusive and diverse society, you can understand it from the model of the Sangh, that wants to impose their ‘model of Hindutva’ equally on the whole of India with diverse cultures… Can tribals of Northeast, other tribal societies and Hindu societies of the south reconcile with the model in which ‘Rama’ is an ideal and superior God? Can the Ram Mandir movement of Hindi belt inspire the whole country? Can a cow be revered as the mother of all Indian people? If not, then is it reasonable to impose this on them…? Wahhabism also has the same track.

The Sangh has one or two countries with a Hindu population but the Wahhabis have a large number of countries as well as countries like Saudi promoting this ideology have huge money and scholars like Zakir Nayak as their brand ambassadors. The thinking of a new nationalist Indian about Gandhi and a newly nationalist Pakistani about Jinnah and Iqbal is the same, that they do not match their ‘model’.

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Maulana Maududi and Jamaat-e-Islami

The interpretation of Islam that was made by Ibn Taymiyya in the fourteenth century was later turned into a comprehensive campaign in the eighteenth century by Abd al Wahhab and despite disagreements on some points, Maulana Maududi, the founder of the Jamaat-e-Islami spread it in the Indian territory in his own way.
There were mainly four firqas in Islam as Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafi and Maliki that were formed following the Imams, having many firqas within them but Sunni from all over India (pre-independence British India) belong to Hanafi firqa those got divided into Deobandi and Barelvi firqas in the nineteenth century following Ashraf Ali Thanwi and Ahmed Raza Khan.

The Arabs place themselves in the Hanbali firqa, while the people of the Middle East and Africa belong to the Shafi and Maliki firqas, but all of them are Sunnis (Shias are completely different from them) and have three ideologies as Salafi, Wahhabi and Ahl e Hadith prevalent among them… In terms of bigotry, you can place Ahl e Hadith, Wahhabi and Salafi from bottom to top. Salafi and Wahhabi don’t even consider other followers of Islam as Muslims.

Maududi had spread this ideology in the Indian territory, and growing rapidly that has now reached the stage where you can see this change around you in the educated, modern-day Muslim (Deobandi) youths in the form of ankle-length pyjamas, beard, etc. Barelvi society is against all this.

There are two faces of this ideology… The one that has created a variety of organizations and has waged a war in the name of ‘jihad’ that will last until the whole world is coloured as they like and the other face that cleverly defends all those things with logic, on the basis of which these jihadi groups are flourishing.

It is an art of changing oneself, defending one’s evils and flaws… The same way as the Sangh, that considers the concept of a Hindu nation as an ideal, has transformed itself into a cultural organization that makes the temple of Lord Rama in north India an issue to bring the BJP to the power, on the other hand, it teams up with the Periyar supporters in the south who curse Rama, at the same time it gets moulded to convince Lingayats who abuse the deity gods of north India.

It can also support mob lynching in the name of cow slaughter in north India and converts itself in some way to stand with the population eating it in the northeast or south. Flexibility is necessary for the spread of any ideology and they also know this. Therefore, to fit that which cannot be adjusted with the original idea, other ancillary organisations or armies are formed, that may look different from the outer side but have the same roots and from integrating the opposing idea to ‘shoot’ or ‘blast’, they do all the jobs well.

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How to Design and Publish ebook-1

How to earn money by writing a book

Although there are many ways to earn money by writing, this needs expertise and there can be many platforms for them, but for a common user, is there any option in this field? Of course… If you write articles that target a specific field like if you write something related to health as a doctor, write something on education as a teacher that can help students, or you possess any technical talent and write something on a particular area related to technology or are an economic expert that writes business-related articles… or you are a poet and write poetry, a satirist and write satire, then you can publish it as a book so that not only people with interest in your area of ​​expertise can be benefitted of this but you can earn money also.

Getting a book published is a very expensive process and even difficult to sell, as it will be difficult to get the cost back which will be spent on it. No publication will publish a book without taking any money, so a better option in this regard is to make the book an ebook and publish it without spending any money. There will be three steps in this whole process… First, design the book and the cover professionally. Second, upload the book on three to four platforms like Amazon Kindle, Google Play Book, Smashwords and Instamojo, etc. And the third is to promote the book and there are many ways for this.

In this article, you will get complete information about all the processes.

An advantage with Smashwords is that the book uploaded here also auto uploads on world level platforms of Smashwords’ partners like Apple, Kobo, Barnes & Noble and Sony. Apart from this, you can also upload on Google Play.

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How to design an ebook

In simple words, an ebook is the PDF format of a text file and when you convert it to a PDF, it usually takes the form automatically in which you save it as a Word file but there are things that require special attention. Simple Word files may open differently on different systems while PDFs remain the same on all systems.

The thing to note here is that you will have to design the file professionally in word format only because the three-four platforms on which you will upload your ebook will only support PDF on Instamojo and Google Play, whereas on Kindle, word file has to be uploaded which the Kindle converts itself and if its format is not correct, then after uploading it will not be displayed properly.

And apart from these three, both these formats of the file will not be uploaded on Smashwords or even if it supports the word file, it will not find a place in the premium catalogue (that includes partner platforms like Apple, Sony, Kobo). Here, you have to upload the EPUB file designed on the Calibre so that it can be read uniformly on all platforms. So let’s first talk about converting a text file into an ebook.

What should be the format of an  ebook

Irrespective of the page size, when converted to PDF, EPUB or Kindle format, it automatically adjusts according to the screen, but it is better to set the size that most readers read, that is according to a smartphone screen so that you can have an idea of ​​what and how your file will appear.

how to write and design ebook
Custom Margin

For that, whatever page size is set in the file, go to the function tab of the “layout” of the file, click on customs margin and in the pop-up that opens here, choose the margins as top 1.27 cm, bottom, left and right 0.51 cm to all the content. Keep the orientation portrait. Keep the width 8.89 cm and height 15.24 cm in the “paper” size. There is no need to tick the section start> new page, odd-even or different first page in “layout”. Keep both headers, footer to 0.25 cm and select OK after clicking “apply to whole document” at the bottom.

Now your file will be designed according to a smartphone which will fit as per the requirement of the tablet or desktop/laptop screen on any system further. Now in this file, you need to turn on the paragraph marker, so that you can see unnecessary spacing, line gap or page break and section.

how t owrite and design ebook
Format of eBook

On the first page, name of the book and the author, on the second-page little information related to the book, on the third page, dedication if any, fourth is of preface, the content summary in the fifth and your book starts from the sixth page. Here this count does not just mean the page, but you have to go to “layout” and break the section from “break” function to “next page” here. This is the most important thing for an ebook or else the content will be jumbled.

Every new page you want to keep as a separate one is not meant to be created with the enter button, nor by page break with control+enter, but only by breaking the section with “next page”. Apart from this, there are few things to keep in mind, that any heading you wish to keep in the centre is to be kept from the paragraph section of “home” and not by moving it with the space bar. The content has to be justified from here. Select all the matter, go to the line spacing in the spacing tab, keep at least 15 pt for Hindi and 13 pt for English content. Rest of the font can be selected 9 pt for Hindi and 10 pt for English.

how to write and design ebook
Paragraph & Line Spacing

Here two points are important… First, there are no limitations like the paperback version, you can also attach multiple colour/black and white photos and videos with text to the file to make the entire book attractive and second that the ebook has two more things to add, which are optional on platforms other than Smashwords, but compulsory on the EPUB. The first is about the author and the second is about the other books or material written by the author.

A bookmarked summary is the most important part in the ebook formatting because it is not a physical book that if you had read eighty-two pages in a book of one hundred and twenty pages, then you can mark that page and when you start reading again, you start from there. In the ebook, you have to take special care that your content is divided into small sections and every section has a heading that you can bookmark and link later so that the reader can touch the specific heading from the summary and go to the desired section or the page directly.

How to bookmark and link every section in the file

how to write and design ebook
How to Bookmark

For this, you have to select the heading of each section, starting from the first section. Click on the “insert” function tab and go to the option “bookmark” and write the initial letter or the heading itself without spacing and add it.

Now select the same headings that you would have written in the summary one by one (you don’t need to write page numbers next to them like paperbacks here), and go to the “link” option of “insert” and in the option of Link to: place in this documents, select the same bookmarked heading to “OK”. In this way, the entire summary will be linked, and the reader can touch the desired heading to reach the desired part directly.

Now come to the finishing touch of the ebook which is your cover page. Cover of the paperback is a difficult thing, in which many things have to be kept that only an expert can take care of but the ebook has only the front cover that even a common user can make according to their subject with Photoshop or Coral or can create with the help of tools of any self-publishing platforms such as Canva, Pothi, Notion, CreateSpace, etc. Or if it seems difficult to do it yourself then you can get it done by a freelancer in five dollars with the help of Fiverr.

So now your ebook is ready to be published. Now save it as a simple word file and save a copy as PDF as well which is to be uploaded in Instamojo and Google Play.

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How to publish an ebook on Instamojo
How to create Account

First of all, go to Google Play and complete the sign-up process. It will take time to get approval. After this, sign up on Instamojo as per the pictures given. Please note that you have to create an account in the individual category everywhere and give your exact details, including bank account and PAN card. If you are going to cross the limit of ten thousand on Instamojo, then only KYC is mandatory otherwise it is not required.

If you wish, you can give a professional look to your profile by putting a profile DP and cover photo here. From here go to add product. In the product type, select digital, then upload your PDF file, fill the title and subtitle. Enter HSN code, ignore it if you do not know. Fill the price, write about your book in detail in the product description below. Select from the category option below about the subject of your book and fill the words in the tag below that match with your book.
Add Product

At the moment there is no need to do anything in advance settings according to your product, but in the SEO option below, fill the title, short description and keywords keeping in mind the Google search. Keywords are very useful in terms of optimization, that can rank your book in Google search. Then click on “add a product to store”… Now your book has been published on Instamojo.

How to publish an ebook on Google Play Books

After getting the approval mail, come to Google Play, click on get started and complete the process of sign up. Keep “self-published writer” in the publisher type. Give a name in the publisher name, or write your own name, write India in country field, fill in your contact number prefixing code for India below and select OK. When you will proceed after agreeing to the terms and conditions on the next page you will directly reach the home page from here.
How to add Book

Here, from the option given in the left side, you have to click on the book catalogue and go to the option “add book” from the next page. On the next page, select “sell book on Google Play” in the sell option and “get a Google Book ID” in the book ID option and proceed after save continue.

The title and description of the book are to be filled in the next section. Select the language Hindi, write whatever name you want as publisher, enter recent publication date, fill the number of the pages, fill the format as an ebook, ignore the series name and number, make the minimum edge as 15, maximum as 18. Keep “no” on the audiences, escape the related book option then save and continue.

The next is the category section. You can write and search for the desired category, leave BISAC in the genre then save and proceed. Give the details of the contributor if any on the next page or save it and proceed. Apply DRM “yes” in the setting, select the preview to 20%, copy-paste limit to 0 and save.
Process of adding

After this, the file upload page will open where you will get a new pop-up as soon as you upload, in which upload both the cover and the PDF file. After this, the page for the book price will open. Here you have to note that if you want this book to be purchased only in India, then select India and write a price accordingly or if you wish to sell it worldwide then fill the price which is applicable globally, however, it is a bit tricky step because books are sold at different price in different countries that have a big variation. However, if you save it, after taking some time, this book will be published on Google Books or Play Store.

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