Expansion of religions
Earlier civilizations were untouched by single globalization, and in the ten thousand years BC, thousands of faiths were popping up all over the world, which was shrunk when the present world populations connected with each other. It started with Christianity and Islam and Buddhism played global participation in this. The early civilizations were polytheistic and for them, many Gods could be revered at the same time. Monotheism flourished in the midst of this stream when the worshipers of a deity proclaimed him the best and mobilized after him.
The world’s first known such monotheistic religion appeared 350 years BC when an Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten declared Aten, the God of the Egyptian pantheon, the almighty controller of the Universe, making it a state religion and prohibiting worship any other deity. But the revolution was unsuccessful and this ideology was abandoned after his death.
In the early civilization, polytheism was dominated which originated from the Greek language. This ideology connected the entire regions to each other encompassed it but this very stream also gave rise to monotheistic beliefs constantly. The propagation of the gospel limited this basic ideology which was further hurt massively by Islam.
In addition to monotheism, polytheism also gave rise to dualistic beliefs. Dualists approve two conflicting entities, auspicious and inauspicious. Unlike monotheism, dualism holds that inauspicious is an independent entity which god has neither created nor is subordinate to God. Dualism states that the entire creation is the field of conflict between these two opposing forces.
Dualism and Monotheism
Both dualism and monotheism collapse at some point but also answer some questions as to why there is anything inauspicious in the world? Why there are problems like grief, suffering, poverty, hunger? Dualism answers this in its core principle but then gets stuck on the issue of discipline that who decides the rules of continuous conflicts between auspicious and inauspicious? Now monotheism answers this but at some other similar points, it becomes quiet.
Dualism itself gave birth to Zoroastrianism in Central Asia between 1500 BC and 1000 BC which was descended from a prophet named Zoroaster and spread over generations to become an important religion in 530 BC and later until 651 was an official religion of the Sasanian empire. It made a deep impact on the Middle East and Central Asian religions. You will find its roots in Vedic religion as well.
However the spread of Islam later swallowed it but one strange thing is that monotheistic Jews, Christians and Muslims also believe in the dualistic doctrine. That is, as ‘inauspicious’, they accept the independent power of ‘Devil‘ or ‘Satan’ which can do every evil thing independently and can cause great destruction without the will or permission of God. However, they deceive themselves by saying that God has given this exemption to Satan.
Arguably, it seems impossible that how people who believe in one God believe in two opposing forces, not being within each other’s reach and both prove that neither of them is almighty but surprisingly, monotheistic Jews, Christians and Muslims believe the same with the help of this poor argument that god has exempted that ‘inauspicious‘ power.
Evolution of atheistic religions
However, some new types of religions began to propagate in Afro-Asia before and after Christ, which was basically free from the divine concepts that the civilisations before were familiar to such as Buddhism and Jainism in India, Taoism and Confucianism in China, Stoicism, Epicureanism, Cynicism in the Mediterranean. These disregarded the gods and were atheistic beliefs.
These creeds believed that the superhuman system governing the universe was not a divine power or a fad but a product of natural laws. Some of them believed in the gods but they were not omnipotent rather they were as much as subject to the laws of nature as all creatures and flora associated with man or nature itself.
The earliest minor beliefs of Sapiens expanded in the same way at first as polytheism then largely dominated as the monotheistic doctrine that contained dualism in itself and also continued as polytheism in Central Asia, also developed in the form of atheistic beliefs in Central and East Asia.